ETS, present in about 20% of the inhabitants of Western countries, is one of the diseases responsible for cardiovascular disease, among other diseases.
In its treatment, the first pillar is the change of life habits: to give up sedentary life and to exercise regularly, to give up other risk factors (e.g. tobacco) and to control the diet.
Diet in a hypertensive person is the first measure to take for the control of his hypertension.
The diet should be heart-healthy, Mediterranean diet type, and low in sodium. The reduction of salt in meals is a measure that has proven effective in lowering blood pressure, and even in mild hypertension, if added to the control of overweight, is sufficient to have blood pressure controlled.
Keeping a high sodium diet is not easy, especially if you do not eat at home, as more and more we eat industrial food, and this food usually has a high salt content.
In addition, there are foods that have a high salt content in themselves, without us needing to add it.
If these foods are not known, you can make the mistake of consuming them in excess and therefore also an excess of salt, despite the fact that the rest of the diet is low-sodium.
These foods are, among others, sausages, olives, ham …
Even if an adequate diet is taken, if it is not possible to control the tension initially, the antihypertensive treatment should be taken, and not left to the patient’s discretion, since the patient will tend to abandon it as soon as he sees that his tension is controlled and attributes it to the diet and to the control of the overweight.
The hypertensive diet must be cardio-healthy, and therefore combat overweight, avoid diabetes and increases in cholesterol.
What should be the parameters of a diet for the hypertensive patient?
o Consume less than 2 grams of sodium per day. Given that table salt has a content of 50% of its weight in sodium, to consume two grams, a total of 4 grams of salt per day should be taken.
o If you are overweight, make a calorie reduction until it is controlled.
o Follow the parameter of the Mediterranean diet: vegetables, fruits, olive oil, reduced consumption of red carbene, alcohol in moderation … do not take excess lipids, especially saturated fatty acids.
The foods that contain higher amounts of salt are:
– Soups of envelope and cubes of concentrated broth.
– Dry cheeses.
– Industrial foods.
– Commercial pastries.
– Asparagus of tin (if they are washed they lose enough salt).
– White bread contains salt, about 0.5 grams of sodium per 100 grams of bread, so it should be eaten in moderation. Even so, it is advisable to go to the bread without salt.
Foods that are free of salt (never 100%), and that are recommended to be consumed (but always forming part of a balanced diet), are:
– Dairy products, except cheese and curds.
– Olive oil.
– Fresh meat.
– Dried fruits.
These foods should be avoided if they have undergone industrial preparation, as they add salt to improve their flavour. For example, in canned vegetables, cannelloni.